Science of Human Memory
Lecture at the COMMUNICATION CAMPUS in HENIOLA FINLAND June 2005.
http://viekas.fi/uusi/ by : PAOLO MANZELLI
Human memory can be understand starting to develop a cognitive science about the two kinds >of memory processing : A) SHORT TERM MEMORY (STM) B) LONG TERM MEMORY(LTM).This two memorizing neuronal processes are distinct not only in the time necessary to recall and remembering , but they are different in the structural bio-chemical encoding and reconstruction procedures that underline the neuronal connectivity of different areas of the brain.
> A) STM (SHORT TERM MEMORY ) , is a consequence of the clustering integration of neurons, that works together in a resonance effect to stabilize memory encoding and recalling processes from episodic to more permanent time in remembering the encoded events. The integration area of the brain related to STM , concerns less emotional interaction so that STM mnemonic strategy generates an integration extended principally on the sensory cortex of the brain.
> B) LTM ( LONG TERM MEMORY ) , utilizes a different area of integration focused on the emotional limbic system of the brain , and the recall of memory include non only periodic changes at the synapses , and an increase of dendritic growth ( as well as the STM) , but surely goes more in deeper of the brain-biology of proteins production, involving the genetic reproduction of proteins.
In relation to the two memorization procedures related to the learning process , the STM is more connected with the encoding of implicit skills , while the LTM is more related to the ability of semantic recognition , i. e. a process where is necessary to realise a comparison of new and previous information codified in a long time before.
Certainly the two typologies of mnemonic processes are interacting more or less efficiently in the brain because LTM compare successive long time storages of memory , and STM connects contemporary events.
Knowing those fundamental diversities of encoding and retreating information processes through the two kind of brain processing of memory, we can observe that enlarging the dynamic of information ,in our contemporary society, it becomes easy to understand that today students exercise principally the STM procedures in respect to LTM ones, and as a consequence youth is more inclined to avoid the LTM approach generally super imposed by the traditional teaching approach in the old schooling systems.
As a matter of facts students working with Information Communication Technology are more able to learn skills in a unconscious methodology of STM; therefore the LRE/EGOCREANET Educational research helps teachers to understand better the dynamic the relationships between learning and memorizing processes in the brain In the research application of the project entitled “BRAIN LANDING” , the EGOCREANET University’s School Group , experimented that the children at level of elementary schools can be able to acquire and elaborate a theory of the MIND/BRAIN evolutionary relationships and acquire a mode of though based on the knowing the more advanced knowledge of brain functioning. In fact the pupils know that the more immediate clustering of neurons , becomes more useful in a quick encoding and retrieval of information. So that can be conscious that the result is a restriction of LTM procedures , due to a retrieval failures , that accelerate the repression of LTM brain´ s method of recalling memory , within a result of an increased brain plasticity of the learning that the old methodology of learning obstructs , blocking the new opportunities of Human and Social Evolution of the Brain’s creativity.
Hence aiming to enhance the new opportunities of Internet Distance Learning for developing a more flexible and sensitive brain functioning schooling system need a conceptual innovation based on the consideration of the advanced brain research on neurophysiology of learning for improving a change of the old traditional system of schooling based on the repetition of disciplinary books instead of a trans-disciplinary method of e. learning based on the better understanding of brain memory evolutionary functions.
- General Principles of Underlying Memory encoding and retrieving processes .
It is important to remember that adrenalin potentiate the activation function of linking the emotional sectors of the brain to Amigdala favouring LTM encoding procedures. . At the contrary is experimented that a chemical substance named “propranololo” , working on the receptors of the limbic systems help to forget emotional part of the memory processes blocking the retrieval of memorial stressing events due to a emotional trauma. This notion reinforce the idea that the STM and LTM corresponds to different circuits of the memory processing the working brain, so that is more easy to understand that Short Term Memory cannot be simply translated in longer term storage in the brain.
As a matter of fact the two procedure STM and LTM of memorizing process do not correspond to an unique reorganization path of acquired knowledge in the short to long time through subsequent stages memory informational codification and storage of a single neuronal dynamics. In fact there are not signal selection and transduction from STM and LTM in a same working linear biochemical trail. This consideration reinforce the fact that STM and LTM correspond to a different interactive brain procedures that link different circuits and areas of the brain and also to diverse approaches of memory consolidation.
STM is a networking procedure that change synapses excitability and sensitivity and implies the activation of growth factors for expanding the clusters of dendrites building up the brain plasticity.
LTM - provide a different insights of genetic reproduction of metabolic
proteins preferentially in a working integration areas focused in the hippocampus were the emotion can be stored , and as a consequence LTM procedure is reducing the brain plasticity.
From the history of the science of memory can be recognized that in the antique Greece there are two different conception about the learning to utilize the memory. For Plato the knowledge is a reorganization of information by means a “Reminiscence” system , whereas for Aristotele the memory process is due to recognize the “shadows of ideas” that people can evocate and rebuilt. So that the existence of two different typology of memory has also an historical fundamental character.
Today science of Neurobiology of learning and memory knows that STM implies a plastic modification of biochemical processes that underline changes in neuronal connectivity linking various areas of the brain functioning to get a selective retention of the most relevant information through a resonance effect well described by Donald Hebb that in 1949 wrote <>.
At the contrary LTM includes a more deep gene expression of protein synthesis reorganization; so that the LTM model of memory is depending more strongly by the DNA reproduction of proteins . In fact if the protein synthesis is blocked as a consequence of a neuronal disease, the LTM process of long term memory is quite completely loss, but survive the STM ability to remember.
Finally I remember that those distinction between STM and LTM neuronal memorizing procedures are fundamental for getting a more precise representation how people can learn by the construction of mental maps and representation patterns in high condition of brain plasticity and how people can difficult change the mentality in relation to the more deep LTM storage of internalized representation.
Paolo Manzelli 13/JUNE/2005
From : HEINOLA . COMMUNICATION CAMP in FINLAND
On Line Bibliography.
- COMMUNICATION CAMPUS in HENIOLA FINLAND :http://viekas.fi/uusi/
- Donal Hebb : http://hebb.mit.edu/courses/8.515/lecture2/sld013.htm
- Human Memory: http://brain.web-us.com/memory/human_memory.htm
- The brain Centre: http://www.nutramed.com/brain/memory.htm